This article has attempted to present a clear image of science production by the member states of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) based on the Essential Science Indicators (ESI). ESI indexes the most effective science productions of the world. The World Bank, on the other hand, has classified the countries of the world according to their economic position. Using the information accessible in these two sources, we examined the science production of each economic class, and then made a comparison between the Islamic and non-Islamic countries. The economic classes comprise the low-income, the lower middle-income, the upper middle-income, and the high-income nations. Our primary objective was to compare and contrast Islamic Countries versus the other countries of the world to show the status of their current scientific publications. Four major features characterize the statistical analysis of our study: population, economic class, citations, and publications in 22 disciplines and all fields of study as indexed in ESI.